( Source : Social Project of Ponorogo Community KMPPS, 2013)
Water is a fundamental necessity for human life . When water conditions are not able to meet the needs of a large impact on health and social . Every day humans is estimated to require a minimum of 100 liters of water per – person , such as : the need for drinking , bathing , washing and others ( WHO Regional Office for South- East Asia , 2013) . Clean water is the water used to meet the daily needs of qualified healthcare quality and can be taken when it is cooked first ( MOH RI , 2002) .
Indonesia has many sources of water such as sea water , rivers , lakes , rain or from sources that we should be able to benefit properly . According Kusnaedi (2004 ) In rural areas generally have a human resources ( HR ) and inadequate funding , the water from the water source is generally taken as a direct clean water without taking the risk of health problems that occur due to the use of water resources is likely to contain pollutants or bacterial pathogens . On average in Indonesia , the current level of water turbidity exceeds the limit of 1,000 NTU . In fact , during the rainy season could reach 15,000 NTU . However , the existing technology is only able to treat water with turbidity levels of 5 NTU to 1000 NTU ( Reuters 2013) . The maximum allowable level for turbidity is 5 NTU , based on the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia No. 907 / MENKES / SK/VII/2002 , the physical requirements of water are as follows :
In the Dayakan Village Ponorogo in East Java there is a problem difficult to handle the needs of clean water or drinking water. When the dry season according to the village head Dayakan, in the Dayakan we can only rely on a backup water from the rainy season and the source of surface water, but the water source is far from the village settlement. Landmark Village Dayakan Ponorogo town located 22 km from Ponorogo to the natural conditions of steep mountains immediately adjacent to Wonogiri and Pacitan. Has a population of 1958 with an area of 12.6 km2 soul, this village needs clean water is high enough as a daily use (Government of Ponorogo, 2013).) Not only the problem that, according to information the head of the village and the local community in the village of Ponorogo Dayakan the water is murky. Difficult entry in this village make a technology very difficult and not easily applied. In fact Ponorogo District-PDAM could not even enter the village overall, due to the terrain and conditions that had not been to support. Map Dayakan Ponorogo Village, can be seen in Figure 1: :
To solve this problem it is necessary that an effective alternative water treatment and raw water in accordance with local conditions. The selection of water treatment technology course must satisfy the technical requirements of the applicable water and produce the best, simplest and cheapest in the operation and maintenance, so we hope could be better implemented by involving the local community.
Therefore, we offer an alternative concept of water treatment are simple, cheap, long-term conditions by adjusting raw water sources and understanding the technology community as “Water Sand Filter”: slow sand filter system. Water sand filter a simple water treatment technology that produces clean water with good quality. The advantages of this system is it does not require chemicals (coagulant) which means environmentally friendly, filtering speed can reach 1-10 m3/m2/hari (BPPT, 2013).
Expectations of “Slow Sand Filter System” can overcome the problems of the local water supply in the long term at a low cost.